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1. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia belerica. Roxb.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, India, 680 553.

Effect of continuous administration of dried 75% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia belerica (Combretaceae) suspended in water was studied in alloxan induced hyperglycemia and antioxidant defense mechanism in rats. T. belerica prevented alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia significantly from 6th day of administration and there was 54% reduction on 12th day. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of T. belerica extract. This was evident from a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides in blood and liver respectively. Similarly, decreased glutathione level produced by alloxan was increased by the administration of the extract in blood and liver. However the increase was not significant. Superoxide dismutase which was decreased by alloxan was significantly increased from 9th day in blood and liver of drug treated group. Similarly there was significant increase in the activity of catalase in blood and liver. Decrease in glutathione peroxidase by alloxan administration was found to be increased significantly in the blood and liver from 9th day by extract treatment. Glutathione reductase also was found to be increased in blood and liver. These results suggested that T. belerica fruit extract possessed anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activity and these activities may be interrelated.

PMID: 19382723 [PubMed - in process]


2. Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Madani A, Jain SK.

Department of Biotechnology, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India.

To search for an herbal remedy for protection against and treatment for typhoid fever, a number of plants were screened. Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica, an ingredient of Ayurvedic preparation 'triphala' used for treatment of digestive and liver disorders, has been reported. Fruits of T. belerica were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, alcohol and water and efficacy of extracts against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated. Alcoholic and water extracts of T. belerica showed significant anti-Salmonella activity and MIC was 12.5 mg/ml against S. typhimurium. Aqueous extracts of Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera also showed low anti-Salmonella activity where as aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale showed no anti-Salmonella activity. Extracts of T. belerica, Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera with other solvents such as chloroform and petroleum ether showed insignificant activity. Results showed that aqueous extract of T. belerica was bactericidal at high concentrations where as low concentrations showed bacteriostatic property. In vitro cellular toxicity studies showed no cyto-toxicity associated with T. belerica extracts. Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of T. belerica conferred protection against experimental Salmonellosis and 100% survival of animals has been reported when challenged with lethal doses of S. typhimurium.

PMID: 19245178 [PubMed - in process]


3.Comparison of enteroprotective efficacy of triphala formulations (Indian Herbal Drug) on methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in rats.

Nariya M, Shukla V, Jain S, Ravishankar B.

Department of Pharmacology, L. M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India.

Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 19170156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



4. Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh-used against kidney and urinary disorders.

Ballabh B, Chaurasia OP, Ahmed Z, Singh SB.

Field Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation Leh-Ladakh, J&K, India. ballabhbb@yahoo.co.in

AIM OF THE STUDY: Traditional medicine of clod desert Ladakh has large potential to treat various ailments among tribal communities inhabited in the remotest region of Indian subcontinent. This study was conducted to document the new ethno-medico-botanical information and traditional use of medicinal plants against kidney and urinary disorders, and thus to conserve the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge system of Amchis of Ladakh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was collected from 105 villages of Leh and Kargil districts of Ladakh region by involving 47 Amchis (the herbalists), village heads and old aged persons including women population through on spot interview and repeated queries among other interviewees over a period of 3 years from 2004-2006. RESULTS: The use of 68 medicinal plants belonging to 29 families and 58 genera of clod desert was documented against the treatment of kidney and urinary disorders in the tribal communities of Ladakh region in India. These species were used in combination of some exotic species such as Bergenia ligulata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Crocus sativus, Elettaria cardamomum, Emblica officinalis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, Santalum album, Spondiax axillaris, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale and some medicinal stones, minerals and salts etc. Problem in urine discharge, burning sensation and painful urination, inflammation and bleeding in the kidney, irritable condition of bladder, haemorrhage of kidney and removal of blocked urine and kidney stone were the frequently reported disorders in the study area. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of traditional system of medicine, role of Amchis in preparation of remedies according to age, sex and severity of ailment, method of preparation, doses and its administrations among tribal communities of Ladakh provides certain new information. Though the system is extensively used among the tribal communities in the remotest regions but still it has a great scope of proper phytochemical and pharmacological validation of the medicinal plants used in different remedies for conservation and development of traditional system of medicine according to modernization.

PMID: 18550306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


5. Protective effect of Triphala on cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats.

Dhanalakshmi S, Devi RS, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Thangaraj R.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. PG. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. Cold-stress occurs when the surrounding temperature drops below 18 degrees C, the body may not be able to warm itself, and hence serious cold-related illnesses, permanent tissue damage and death may results. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) against the cold stress-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in four different groups (saline control, Triphala, cold-stress and Triphala with cold-stress) of Wistar strain albino rats. In this study cold-stress (8 degrees C for 16 h/d/15 days) was applied and the oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in corticosterone levels. Upon exposure to the cold-stress, a significant (P<0.05) increase in immobilization with decrease in rearing, grooming, and ambulation behavior was seen in open field. Following cold-exposure, significant increase in the LPO and corticosterone levels was observed. Oral administration of Triphala (1 g/kg/animal body weight) for 48 days significantly prevented these cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in albino rats. The results of this study suggest that Triphala supplementation can be regarded as a protective drug against stress.

PMID: 17978562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


6. High-performance liquid chromatography as a tool for the chemical standardisation of Triphala--an Ayurvedic formulation.

Singh DP, Govindarajan R, Rawat AK.

Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India.

Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantitative determination of the major antioxidant polyphenols from Triphala has been developed. The use of an RP18 column with an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of gallic acid, tannic acid, syringic acid and epicatechin along with ascorbic acid within a 20 min analysis. Validation of the method was performed in order to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. In addition, optimisation of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds was also studied. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17879225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of Triphala against common bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Shankar EM, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar R, Thangaraj R, Vijayananth K, Sheeladevi R, Rao UA.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India 600 113.

The isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and the rising trend in the recovery rates of resistant bacteria highlights the need for newer alternative principles. Triphala has been used in traditional medicine practice against certain diseases such as jaundice, fever, cough, eye diseases etc. In the present study phytochemical (phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid) and antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala and its individual components (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were tested against certain bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi) obtained from HIV infected patients using Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. T. chebula was found to possess high phytochemical content followed by T. belerica and E. officinalis in both aqueous and ethanol extracts. Further, most of the bacterial isolates were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts of T. chebula followed by T. belerica and E. officinalis by both disk diffusion and MIC methods. The present study revealed that both individual and combined aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala have antibacterial activity against the bacterial isolates tested. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17273983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


8. Hypolipidemic effect of triphala in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats.

Saravanan S, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. PG. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Emblica officinalis) on total cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and free fatty acid in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, Triphala treated, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol + 1% cholic acid + egg yolk) and Triphala pre-treatment in hypercholesteremic rats. Results showed significant increase in the total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and free fatty acid in hypercholesteremic rats were significantly reduced in Triphala treated hypercholesteremic rats. The data demonstrated that Triphala formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats.

PMID: 17268159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


9. Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.

Jadon A, Bhadauria M, Shukla S.

Reproductive Biology and Toxicology Lab, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, MP, India.

Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney damage.

PMID: 17049775 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


10.Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system.

Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/- 0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.

PMID: 16471318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


11. Effect of Triphala on oxidative stress and on cell-mediated immune response against noise stress in rats.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Narayanan GS, Sheeladevi R.

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Dr ALM.PG. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) on noise-stress induced alterations in the antioxidant status and on the cell-mediated immune response in Wistar strain male albino rats. Noise-stress employed in this study was 100 dB for 4 h/d/15 days and Triphala was used at a dose of 1 g/kg/b.w/48 days. Eight different groups of rats namely, non-immunized: control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala with noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood cells (5 x 10(9) cells/ml) were used to immunize the animals. Biochemical indicators of oxidative stress namely lipid peroxidation, antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues (thymus and spleen) and SOD, GPx and corticosterone level in plasma were estimated. Cell-mediated immune response namely foot pad thickness (FPT) and leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test were performed only in immunized groups. Results showed that noise-stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and corticosterone level with concomitant depletion of antioxidants in plasma and tissues of both non-immunized and immunized rats. Noise-stress significantly suppressed the cell-mediated immune response by decreased FPT with an enhanced LMI test. The supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats. This study concludes that Triphala restores the noise-stress induced changes may be due to its antioxidant properties.

PMID: 16444587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


12.In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, Mohan H.

Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India.

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and triphala (17%-63%). They also inhibited radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes effectively with IC(50) values less than 15 microg/mL. The extracts were found to possess the ability to scavenge free radicals such as DPPH and superoxide. As the phenolic compounds present in these extracts are mostly responsible for their radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic contents present in these extracts were determined and expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalents and were found to vary from 33% to 44%. These studies revealed that all three constituents of triphala are active and they exhibit slightly different activities under different conditions. T1 shows greater efficiency in lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA assay, while T2 has greater radical scavenging activity. Thus their mixture, triphala, is expected to be more efficient due to the combined activity of the individual components.

PMID: 16161061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


13. Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions.

Srikumar R, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R.

Department of Medical Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, Dr. A.L. Mudaliar Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600 113, India.

Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis (phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4 h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions. The neutrophil function tests and corticosterone levels were carried out in eight different groups of animals, namely control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC 5 x 10(9) cells per ml) were used for immunizing the animals that belongs to immunized groups. In Triphala administration (1 g/kg/d for 48 d), A.I was found to be significantly enhanced in the Triphala group, while the remaining neutrophil functions and steroid levels were not altered significantly. However the neutrophil functions were significantly enhanced in the Triphala immunized group with a significant decrease in corticosterone level was observed. Upon exposure to the noise-stress, the neutrophil functions were significantly suppressed and followed by a significant increase in the corticosterone levels were observed in both the noise-stress and the noise-stress immunized groups. These noise-stress-induced changes were significantly prevented by Triphala administration in both the Triphala noise-stress and the Triphala noise-stress immunized groups. Hence our study has divulged that oral administration of Triphala appears to stimulate the neutrophil functions in the immunized rats and stress induced suppression in the neutrophil functions were significantly prevented by Triphala.

PMID: 16079482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



14. Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Aqil F, Khan MS, Owais M, Ahmad I.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh--202002 India.

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds.

PMID: 15812867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


15. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma.

PMID: 15476301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


16. Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

Tasaduq SA, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma SC, Bedi KL, Singh J, Jaggi BS, Johri RK.

Biochemistry Lab, Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu-Tawi 180 001, India.

HP-1 a herbal formulation comprising of Phyllanthus niruri and extracts of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Tinospora cordifolia has been evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Results show that HP-1 reversed the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels in a primary monolayer culture of rat hepatocytes (in vitro). HP-1 attenuated the serum toxicity as manifested in elevated levels of transaminases (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and GPT) The antioxidative enzymes in liver (catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were restored to normal values after the oral administration of HP-1. HP-1 suppressed the formation of the superoxide anion radical and reduced CCl4 mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Silymarin and antioxidants (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol) were used for comparison. The present study showed that HP-1 is a potential hepatoprotective formulation with an additional attribute of being anti-peroxidative.

PMID: 14992325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


17. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Kerala Trichur 680 553, India.

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5, 27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively. The concentration needed for the inhibition of hydoxyl radical scavenging were 165, 71, 155.5 and 151 micro g/ml, and that for superoxide scavenging activity were found to be 20.5, 40.5, 6.5 and 12.5 micro g/ml, respectively. Oral administration of the extracts (100 mg/kg body weight) reduced the blood sugar level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly within 4 h. Continued, daily administration of the drug produced a sustained effect.

PMID: 12065146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


18. Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.

Saleem A, Ahotupa M, Pihlaja K.

Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Finland. amsale@utu.fi

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials.

PMID: 11837686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


19. Hypolipidemic activity of three indigenous drugs in experimentally induced atherosclerosis.

Shaila HP, Udupa SL, Udupa AL.

Dept. of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

The effect of orally administered indigenous drugs Terminalia arjuna, T. belerica and T. chebula were investigated on experimental atherosclerosis. Rabbits were fed a cholesterol-rich diet to induce atherosclerosis. The three drugs were fed along with cholesterol. At the end of the experimental period the animals were killed and their plasma and tissue lipid components estimated. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta were examined histologically. T. arjuna was found to be the most potent hypolipidemic agent and induced partial inhibition of rabbit atheroma. The results indicate that T. arjuna may play an anti-atherogenic role.

PMID: 9891944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


20. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties.

Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Agriculture, Aligarh Muslim University, India.

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test pathogens. Interestingly, extracts of five plants showed strong and broad spectrum activity as compared to rest of 51 plant extracts which demonstrated moderate activity. On the whole the alcoholic extracts showed greater activity than their corresponding aqueous and hexane extracts. Among various extracts, only alcoholic extracts of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Plumbago zeylanica and Holarrhena antidysenterica were found to show potentially interesting activity against test bacteria. These active crude alcoholic extracts were also assayed for cellular toxicity to fresh sheep erythrocytes and found to have no cellular toxicity.

PMID: 9741890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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